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The complete bibliography for all sources used on this website is as follows:

Abraham, Willie E. The Mind of Africa. University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Adams, John; Wroth, Kinvin L and Zobel, Hiller B. eds. Legal Papers of John Adams. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.

Aesop. Aesop’s Fables: A New Translation by Laura Gibbs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Arnett, Paul. “An Introduction to Other Rivers.” In Souls Grown Deep: African American Vernacular Art of the South, edited by Paul Arnett and William Arnett. NewYork:
Timwood Books, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library, 2000.

Balint, Rebecca. “Al and Rita” in Brattleboro Reformer. June 2, 2014.,345303 (Retrieved May 11, 2020).

Belleville News-Democrat. “Edna J. Patterson-Petty.” February 28, 2002: 1C.

----------. “East St. Louis Protest Raises Awareness for Economic Empowerment.” (Retrieved August 30, 2020).

Chicago Defender. “Proclaim Negro History Week.” February 9,1961: 12.

----------. “Chicago To Celebrate DuSable Week, Aug. 19-25.” July 11,1962: 4.

Clarke, Christa. “Male and Female Antelope Headdresses (Ci Wara) (Bambana Peoples).” New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006. antelope-headdresses-ci-wara-bamana-peoples (Retrieved April13, 2020).

Cole, Herbert H. “Are There True Experts?” African Arts IX (3) 1976: 23-24.

Cullen, Countee. On These I Stand: An Anthology of the Best Poems of Countee Cullen. New York Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1947.

Dunham, Katherine. Island Possessed. Garden City: Doubleday, 1969.

Fitch, Nancy-Elizabeth. How Sweet the Sound: The Spirit of African American History. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace and Company, 2000.

Hening, William Waller, ed. The Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia from the First Session of the Legislature, in the Year 1619. New York: R. & W. & G. Bartow, 1823. 2:170. _the_condition_of_the_mother_1662 (Retrieved July 17, 2020).

Holy Bible. King James Version.

Hughes, Langston. The Langston Hughes Reader. George Braziller, Inc, 1988.

----------. Selected Poems of Langston Hughes. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1983.

Imperato, Pascal J. “The Dance of the Tyi Wara.” African Arts, Vol. 4, No. 1 (1970): 6.
Jackson, Ashawnta. “Why MLK Believed Jazz Was the Perfect Soundtrack for Civil Rights” in JSTORS Daily, October 16, 2019. perfect-soundtrack-for-civil-rights/ (Retrieved May 11, 2020).

Joyce, Mike. “Miriam Makeba Dizzy Gillespie”. The Washington Post. August 19, 1991. gillespie/ab2f28bf-b7c0-4c57-a61b-87afb815ca35/ (Retrieved May 14, 2020).

Lawal, Babatunde. “African Roots, African American Branches: Tradition and Transformation in African American Self-Taught Art.” In Souls Grown Deep: African American Vernacular Art of the South, edited by Paul Arnett and William Arnett. New York: Timwood Books, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library, 2000.

Leuzinger, Elsy. The Art of Black Africa. New York: Graphic Society Ltd., 1972.

Levin, Floyd. Classic Jazz: A Personal View of the Music and the Musicians. Berkley: University of California Press, 2000.

McCartney, John T. Black Power Ideologies: An Essay in African-American Political Thought. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.
McLaughlin, Eliott C.. “Three videos piece together the final moments of George Floyd's life.” CNN. June 23, 2020. minneapolis/index.html (Retrieved, July 31, 2020)

Monson, Ingrid. “Monk Meets SNCC.” Black Music Research Journal Vol. 19, No. 2, New Perspectives on Thelonious Monk, Autumn, 1999:187-200.

Morgan, Jennifer L. “Partus Sequitur Ventrem: Law, Race, and Reproduction in Colonial Slavery.” Small Axe, 55 22.1 (March 2018): 1–17

Mugubane, Bernard Makhosezwe. The Ties that Bind: African-American Consciousness of Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1987.
Murphy, Paul P. “New Video Appears to Show Three Police Officers Kneeling on George Floyd.” CNN. May 20, 2020. trnd/index.html (Retrieved May 29, 2020).
Owomoyela, Oyekan. Yoruba Trickster Tales. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

Paige, Deasia. “East St. Louis Protest Raises Awareness for Economic Empowerment.” Belleville News-Democrat. June 18, 2020. (Retrieved July 11, 2020).

Paris, Peter J. The Spirituality of African Peoples: The Search for a Common Moral Discourse. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995.

Perani, Judith and Fred T. Smith. The Visual Arts of Africa: Gender, Power, and Life Cycle Rituals. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1998.

Petty, Reginald. Memories of Days Gone By. East St. Louis: Unpublished manuscript, 2001.

Phillipson, David W. Ancient Churches of Ethiopia. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2009.

Roberts, Russell. The Africa Union. Broomall, PA: Mason Crest, 2014.

Robinson, Shantay. “Dr. Samella Lewis: The God mother of African American Art,” Black Art in America, March 11, 2019. the-godmother-of-african-american-art/ (Retrieved May 12, 2020)

Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover and London: Wesleyan University Press and University Press of New England, 1994.

Roy, Christopher. Art and Life in Africa: Selections from the Stanley Collection. The University of Iowa Museum of Art, 1985.

Thompson, Robert Farris. Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy. New York: Vintage Books, 1983.

----------. African Art in Motion: Icon and Act in the Collection of Katherine White. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974.

Voestermans, Paul. “Alterity/Identity: A Deficient Image of Culture” in Alterity, Identity, Image: Selve and Others in Society and Culture. Eds. Raymond Corbey and Joep Leersen. Amsterdam-Atlanta, GA, 1991.
Visona, Monica Blackmun, Robin Poynor et al. A History of Art in Africa. New York: Harry N. Abram, Inc., 2001.